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Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning


Intelligence: Robert Sternberg, the psychologist defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection, and shaping of real-world environments, relevant to one's life."

Artificial Intelligence: Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving.

The beginning: The field of artificial intelligence was formally founded in 1956, at a conference held at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire. The term artificial intelligence was coined here.

AI Winter: This field has attracted researchers for its underlying intellectual challenges, but at the same time the field has remained controversial because of its social, ethical, and philosophical implications. This controversy has affected its funding at various times. These setbacks in funding are known as AI winter. The major such AI winters are from 1974 to 1980 and again from 1987 to 1993.

Initial Achievements: But research on AI bounced back to track from 1997 when IBM’s Deep Blue became the first computer to beat the famous chess champion, the Russian grandmaster, Gary Kasparov. Again in 2011 Watson, a question-answering computer system, developed by IBM’s DeepQA project won the quiz show “jeopardy” by beating the reigning champions Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings. And then there was no looking back.

Classification of AI

AI can be classified as weak AI and strong AI.

Weak AI: Weak AI is basically a trained and focused system to perform a specific task. Weak is also called artificial narrow intelligence (ANI). Some of the applications of ANI are Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, autonomous vehicles.

Strong AI: Strong AI is again further subdivided into artificial general intelligence (AGI) and artificial superintelligence (ASI). AGI is a form of AI where the machine has intelligence comparable to humans. It can solve problems, learn and plan for the future without relying on predefined algorithms. ASI would surpass the intelligence of human brains, though this is entirely theoretical without any practical applications to date. They form a good basis for science fiction.


Machine learning Vs Deep learning: We have come across the words machine learning and deep learning on many occasions. We can consider machine learning as a subfield of AI and deep learning as a subfield of machine learning. Machine learning is based on algorithms allowing the machine to learn from data and to make informed decisions based on what it has learned, while deep learning is based on artificial neural networks that can learn and make intelligent decisions on their own. A true AI can improve past iterations, get smarter and more aware, and enhance its capabilities and knowledge.


Some applications of AI:

Speech recognition: It is a capability that uses natural language processing (NLP) which can process human speech. It finds its application in automatic speech recognition (ASR), computer speech recognition, or speech to text conversion, e.g., Siri from Apple and Alexa from Amazon.

Customer Services: Many e-commerce sites, social media platforms use chatbots. These chatbots are capable of answering frequently asked questions (FAQ).

Computer vision: This AI allows systems to derive information from digital images, videos, and other visual inputs and take decisions and actions accordingly. It finds its application in photo tagging in social media, radiology imaging in healthcare, self-driving car in the automotive industry.

Artificial intelligence is a new age career. This market is forecasted to grow approximately at a rate of 54% per year. Anyone interested in coding, data analysis, machines can consider entering this field.


These are some videos which you might be interested in.


[ Next week I will discuss the various job roles in this field and the eligibility criteria to enter this field.

You can mail your career-related queries to iasakolkata.wb@gmail.com or WhatsApp to 9674384433 ]

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